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They also help in the understanding of clinical pharmacology, and are essential in the planning of clinical trials, which strives to promptly and ultimately assess safety and effectiveness (9, 10) (Table 1 and 2).
Biomarkers that represent highly sensitive and specific indicators of disease pathways are often used as substitutes for outcomes in clinical trials where they can be used to predict and evaluate the clinical risk and/or benefit of a treatment, which is the optimal objective of all therapeutic interventions (11).
However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.An estimated 27,360 men will die from prostate cancer in 2009 (1). An early observation reports that more than 65% of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over the age of 65 (2).Compared with the occurrences in the White population, the incidence of prostate cancer is approximately 60% higher in Black men, while native Japanese and Chinese populations have a low risk of incidence and mortality (3).Both genes and proteins that reveal loss, mutation, or variation in expression between normal prostate and cancerous prostate tissues will be covered in this article.Along with the discovery of prostate cancer biomarkers, we will describe the criteria used when selecting potential biomarkers for further development towards clinical use.